High pressure Die Casting is a complex field of foundry. The liquid hot metal is generally poured into a shot sleeve for few seconds, until the desired volume is reached. Then, after a short waiting time, the plunger pushes the metal into the die cavity. First a slow shot phase is performed to avoid air entrainment in the sleeve, then a final high speed phase that fill the casting part in a very short amount of time.
One of the targets of any producer is to find the best compromise between a fast process, to increase the productivity and to reduce the heat losses, and a slow filing and shot necessary to minimize the air entrainment.
FLOW-3D Cast, due to its capabilities, is one of the best software to analyse this process. It can combine easily moving objects, mass sources, heat transfer and solidification, everything in fast and accurate simulations. Several studies were already done to determine the best plunger velocity curve, also coupling FLOW-3D Cast to numerical optimization software.
The aim of the present simulation, instead, is to focus on the sleeve filling, underlining the possibility to control also this phase and the defects that could arise from a not-optimal solution.
In the video both fluid and walls are coloured by temperature, with two different colour scales. The heat transfer coefficients have been artificially increased to emphasize the temperature change. Thanks to this fact, it is possible to notice that some drops of metal flow on the beginning of the runner system, solidifying and influencing the casting phase until they are melted again. It is possible also to notice the big waves generated when the filling is finished, and how this waves contribute to entrain some big air bubbles that are pushed into the casting part, generating defects.