Pelton turbines (or Pelton wheel) are the most worlwide used type turbines for electricity generation in hydraylics powerplant, due to their high efficiency. Its design belongs to 1870 but, with some modifications, they are still the first choiche in modern powerplants.
In a Pelton turbine the energy is extracted from the kinetic energy of the water, in contrast with other types of turbines where the hydrostatic pressure is used: the water, coming from an upper basin, is accelerated and ejected against the Pelton paddles. Paddle geometry is designed properly to absorb as much as possible the kinetic energy of the fluid, starting rotating. The rotational speed of the turbine is then converted to electric power through a conductive coil.
The simulation analyse the initial transient of the turbine, where water at over 100 m/s impact on the Pelton’s paddle providing torque and angular acceleration.
All geometries and data used in the simulation are realistic and coherent with the real phenomena: wheel geometry has real shape and mass property, fluid is water with a reasonable speed, and the nozzle contains a doble valve, used in real turbines to adjust water flow rate.
Interesting is the plot of the angular speed of the wheel. For Pelton turbines, it is known that the top efficiency is reached when the peripheral speed of the wheel is about half the speed of the water at the nozzle. For this purpose, a probe has been located at the centre of the nozzle in order to monitor the fluid speed, while another probe has been attached to a paddle’s wheel, in order to catch the peripheral speed. The two quantities can be directly showed as output from the simulation.
The videos make a large use of Flowsight features: alpha transparency based on variable value, moving camera, fine tuning of light and reflections, multi-plots and multi-viewport visualization.